Current situation and main directions of development of sheep breeding in the Carpathian region

  • G. Sedìlo
  • S. Vovk
  • M. Petryshyn
Keywords: Carpathian region, sheep breding, cooperative, sheep milk, meat productivity, crossbreeding, technology

Abstract

We analyzed changes that have occurred in the period since 1991 in the field of sheep breeding in the Carpathian region (Zakarpattia, Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv and Chernivtsi oblast), marked by specific features of certain regions and climatic zones, together with the main problems of the industry and highlighted ways to solve them. During the period from 1991 to 2015 held a significant reduction in the sheep livestock as a whole in Ukraine (more than 9 times) and the Carpathian region in particular (3,6 times). Starting from 2011, there is a positive trend towards increasing livestock. Folding the sheep breeding industry in the Carpathian region passed less intensively than in Ukraine in general. In 1991 those regions had concentration of 6,2 % of the total livestock, then in 2015–21,4 %, including the proportion of Transcarpathian region that currently is 14,6 %. In regions that practice the milking of sheep (Bukovina, Zakarpattia, Ivano-Frankivsk mountainous areas), reducing livestock was less substantial. Density of the livestock per 100 ha of agricultural lands in the Carpathian region was more than three times the average prevails in Ukraine (6 sheep versus 1,9 sheep). In the Transcarpathian and Chernivtsi oblasts this indicator is in accordance with 25,3 and 7,6 sheep/100 ha. On average, around Ukraine to 1 thousand population is accounted for 17,3 of sheep, and in the Carpathian region, this figure is much higher and is 27,7 sheep. However, this advantage is formed entirely by the Transcarpathian and Chernivtsi regions, whereas in the Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk, the number of sheep per thousand inhabitants is much lower. For comparison, in Europe and the Caucasus per thousand residents accounted for 210 sheep. The bulk of the livestock (almost ¾) concentrated in the farms of the population. In average in Carpathian region this figure amounts to 87,1 %. Ways of development of sheep breeding in the region:* association of small producers and development service cooperatives;* increase of the professional level of employees in industry, including owners of private farming and farms;* setting up scientific research institutions on farms and educational institutions agricultural profile of breedings farms;* increasing dairy and beef breeding sheep performance using pure-breed methods and the cross-breed of mating;* improvement of production technology and processing sheep’s milk;* creating a network of specialised slaughterhouses, able to conduct the slaughter of sheep, rating, and sections cut of meat according to the requirements of international standards.

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Section
Agricultural sciences (animal husbandry)