Analysis of Technological Aspects of Grain Food Production with a High Biological Value

  • Yu. Chursinov
  • S. Mykolenko
  • V. Sokolov
  • V. Bilenko
Keywords: grain, biological value, hydrothermal treatment of grain, mycotoxins

Abstract

Cereals are the main kinds of raw material for food production either for Ukraine or for the world. Ukraine is one of large exporters of grain at the world market. According to results 2014 the amount of the exported grain reached more 31 mln.tonn Grain is processed to different kinds of groats and flour, fermented drinks. Besides flour is a main component for bakery, pasta and confectionery production. The basic flour production is made from wheat and rye in Ukraine.Grain is the source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, microelements and, in particular, food fibres these components is vitally needed for health nutrition. Following the tendencies of production of refined food appeared at the beginning of the last century processing grain into extra shelled cereal food production without peripheral layers is traditional in Ukraine. Thus the biological value of the produced flour and other cereal foods is decreased substantially, and the losses of grain raw materials constitute over 20 %.Implementation of whole grain food production technologies give possibility to process grain with all components, preservation of all valuable components of grain in finished food production for consumer. Despite a lot of advantages they are faced with technological difficulties of applying in industry.Hydrothermal treatment occupies one of key place in grain processing. Stage of hydrothermal treatment of grain used by traditional technologies of grain processing into flour and groats allows giving grain optimal technological properties, changing the structural and mechanical properties of certain anatomic parts of grain and, as a result, reducing the losses of raw material wich increasing finished product output.For innovative technologies of grain processing, besides the production of whole grain foods, the aim of this technological stage is complemented by a task to activate the processes of embryo germination. On the one hand considerable increase bioavailability of the finished food products is the consequence of this approach. On the other hand, being in the conditions of high content of free moisture, grain raw material becomes more microbiological contaminated. In addition the consumer qualities of the food products decrease because of activation of enzyme processes.Using water without any treatment is usual for grain hydrothermal treatment. Actual aspect is using of grain of water with certain regulated properties. Using physical and chemical methods for water treatment is perspective, for example, by usage of non-equilibrium plasma. Having high penetrating ability and antiseptic properties, plasma-chemically activated water in hydrothermal treatment of grain would allow solving the key problems of whole grain food production.

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Section
Agricultural sciences (agronomics, agricultural ecology, land reclamation, ecology, crops husbandry, farming)