The resistance of corn hybrids seeds and their post-harvest handling

  • N. Kirpa
  • M. Styurko
  • L. Bondar’
  • Yu. Bazilyeva
Keywords: seeds, hybrid maize, post-harvest processing, drying, germination, quality

Abstract

The use of high quality seeds is essential agrotechnological condition of corn growing and raising the yield of this crop. Numerous experiments scientific institutions and the experience of the best farms shows that when sowing quality seeds grain yield of maize increased by 18–20 % and more.To prepare and produce high-quality corn seed essential it is important its post-harvest processing, namely, machines and technologies for this. In Ukraine post-harvest processing is carried out in the system corn plants and seed farms that have the appropriate material and technical base and mostly typical technological scheme of processing of seeds, starting from the stage of receiving the cobs to the storage of finished products.The thermal drying process is of particular importance in post-harvest technologies. It is noticed that under the same conditions different corn hybrids respond differently to drying conditions, and therefore different shape and quality and, above all, the similarity, it may rise or fall compared to that which one gets when cleaning wet seeds.The purpose of this research was to reveal the peculiarities of post-harvest seed treatment of corn in a typical corn-processing plant, to establish the optimal heating temperature of grain depending on the heat resistance and germination of corn hybrids seeds in the process of drying.The methodology and research methods. Study of the characteristics of post-harvest processing was performed on corn-processing plant of Public institution in the Institute of agriculture steppe zone NAAS capacity of 500 tons of seeds per season, a pilot farm SE “DG Dnepr” and in the laboratory of innovative technologies of processing, storage and standardization of grain.In parallel, we performed a study of the effect of drying temperatures on the quality of corn seeds. In experiments were used the selection of corn hybrids of the Institute, various ripeness groups: In experiments were used for the hybrid maize breeding Institute, different maturity classes: Dnieprovskiy 181 SV, Kremen’ 200 SV, Khmelnitsky, Solonyansky 298 SV, Lubava 279 MV, Rozovsky 311 SV, Zbruch and zamazatelno line KT 021 S.The plant is typical, because it has a standard set of machines and technological equipment. In the process, after each operation taking samples of seeds, which determined the quality of humidity and cleanliness, level of injury to the seed, germination energy, germination, seed yield on accepted techniques developed at the Institute. Directly in the plant conducted a production test, calculated the economic efficiency of technological processes. The experiments were performed according to the recommendations, guidelines and methods for conducting post-harvest and pre-processing and storage of seed crops.Different temperature regimes of drying was investigated in laboratory conditions. Moisture at harvest cobs selected for drying, 17,3–53,3 %. The heads are dried to a moisture content of 12–13 %, thin layer of driers in the chamber type. The temperature of the coolant in the chamber of the dryer was 30, 40, 50 ºC, practically so was the heating of the grain on the cob. The quality of seeds after drying, sowing and harvest properties were determined by conventional methods according to the experiments with corn. Special condition paid field germination, as the most important indicator associated with the performance of the plant and yield hybrids.Conclusions. Identified post-harvest handling processes, which in terms of the typical corn-processing plant lead to a significant deterioration of seed quality, including threshing ears and separation of seeds. Causes of deterioration are the macro- and microdamaging of seeds and impurities self-hulled grain from wet ears. The equipment involved in the transaction should be a priority upgrade and replace the new one Optimal temperature regimes of drying of seeds of maize hybrids depending on their thermal stability. The resistance was formed under the influence of harvest moisture content and the heating temperature of the seed. The heating temperature at 30 °C provided high laboratory and field germination of seeds before harvest moisture 36–40 % depending on hybrids for low – temperature can increase to 40 °C. It was detected, the heat resistance of seeds depending on the varietal characteristics of hybrids, among the least studied was heat-resistant hybrid Kremen’ 200 SV, for which it is necessary to develop and set individual drying temperature.

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Section
Agricultural sciences (agronomics, agricultural ecology, land reclamation, ecology, crops husbandry, farming)