Pedofaunal Cadastre as Guidelines for Assessing Soil Bioresources (Priamurje Invertebrates as an Example) (р. )

  • G. Ganin
Keywords: soil invertebrates, mesofauna, bioresource, biomass, soils, Priamurje, Far East


The paper proves the practicality of the Pedofaunal Cadastre as a part of the Soil Cadastre. Taking invertebrates of the Russian Far East south as an example the author discusses the possibility of assessing bioresources of soil animals. The paper also presents comparative data on species diversity and environmental parameters of mesopedobionts from the southern taiga of the Russian Far East. Soil inhabitants support the biosphere balance and being included into many trophic nets are potential bioresources and as such were always considered to be key research topics. Nearly 98 % of all terrestrial animals of the southern Russian Far East are invertebrates, and the life of most of them to a greater or less extent depends on soils. Still only 10 % of invertebrate species of all size-groups permanently live in soil. Soil mesofauna of the region under study is taxonomically represented by 5 types, 11 classes and 1550 species from 80 to 2600 species/m2 in number, making 40 % of total biodiversity of pedobiont animals. 35-70 % of total pedobiont zoomass belong to mesopedobionts, which having prevailing biomass and productivity ecologically dominate in the soil horizon. This fact determines biocenotic value of mesopedobionts in terrestrial ecosystems.Up to now biotopic correlation has been fixed for 840-850 species, many of which are endemic. At present taxonomic groups of studied phytocenoses are described as follows: Tricladida – 2, Nematoda – 1, Annelida – 32 (Megadrili – 12, Enchytraeidae – ~20), Mollusca – ~80, Diplopoda – 68, Lithobiomorpha – 20, Geophilomorpha – 21, Crustacea – 10, Aranei – 199, Opiliones – 13, Dermaptera – 4, Blattodea – 1, Diptera – 47, Carabidae – 141, Staphylinidae – 148, Elateridae – 37, Curculionidae – 42, Scarabaeidae – 7, Chrysomelidae – 3, Silphidae – 6. Species composition and number of pedobionts in soils of mixed, dark and light coniferous forests and forest-steppe zones are presented in the Pedofaunal Cadastre.Mesofauna of mixed and broad-leaved forests is the most diverse. 623 invertebrate species have been registered here by now. Inhabitants of mixed forest phytocenoses that are trophically dependant on leaf-litter make 70 % of native fauna communities. Although dark coniferous forests occupy a relatively small area they are distinguished by a significant variety of pedobionts (241), whereas light coniferous forests are less specious (186 species). Of the open habitats, steppe meadows are the most specious (102 species), followed by dry meadows (75 species), wetland meadows (63 species) and swamps (24 species).In the southern Far East the maximum mesopedobiont biomass values (26–39 g/m2 in subzones on average) are registered in the zone of mixed and broad-leaved forests. In other plant zones of the region biomass reserves are much lower (4–10 g/m2). In the intrazonal biotopes the values are average (9–19 g/m2). In general, in the southern Far East larger pedobionts make 35–70 % of the total zoomass of pedocenoses. A “southern” character of the structure of soil fauna here is evident. It is usually specific to forest ecosystems of a nemoral type. Biomass of a saprotroph complex (earthworms, diplopods and mollusks) is about 85 %, whereas that of predators of all larger pedobionts is only 5–6 %. The same specific feature is found typical to the southern taiga of the Russian and West-Siberian plains, which has common genesis with the Far Eastern taiga. However, in the northern and middle taiga predators make over 50 % of biomass of all larger soil invertebrates.Our inventory permits us to have a notion of the present condition of pedobionts on the protected and developed territories, and tends to suggest which species need protection, also bioindicators. The Pedofaunal Cadastre should enter as an integral part into the Soil Cadastre and pedobionts should be, in addition, evaluated as a biological resource.


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Biological sciences