The search of criteria for the determination of ecological safety of the pesticides utilization
AbstractConsidering the analysis of the literary sources concerning methodological instructions necessary to determine indices of possible danger caused by means of ecological plants protection, to the latter we can refer environmental danger of the pesticides that integrates such notions as ecotoxicity, phitotoxicity and the activity in the environment.The carrying out of the complex ecological investigation is preceded by the search of the most informative and reliable criteria and the elaboration of the system of indices that would reflect the changes in the ecological condition of the soil in the most impartial way.The aim of our investigation has become the detection of the regularities of phosphorganic pesticides impact on the vegetation metabolism in the chain of“ pesticide–plant” interrelation, by the reaction of the latter it would be possible to distinguish the concentration of the xenobiotics dangerous for phytocenosis.The object of our investigation has been defined as the determination of changes in the plants under the impact of phosphorganic pesticides both at the biological and ecophysiological level, namely the influence of different concentrations of the pesticides under investigation on the chlorophyll contents in the vegetative mass of the winter wheat.It is agricultural phytocenosis that has become the subject of the investigation: the soil is typical light loam typical chernozem, winter wheat and phosphorganic pesticides: Caution fungicide Derozal of the systemic action (the activity substance Carbendazim) and averagely toxic systemic insecticide Bі-58 (the activity substance Dimethoate).In order to determine the connection between the changes in the winter wheat metabolism and translocation of phosphorganic pesticides, the indices systems at the molecular (physiological processes) and ontogenetic (plants tolerance at certain stages of ontogenesis) levels of living organization have been applied. It has been established that in order to detect environmentally dangerous concentrations of pesticides, it is possible to suggest the study of the dynamics of the chrolophyll contents in the vegetation mass of the plants under the influence of these substances. It is necessary to determine the expediency of the obligatory pesticides utilization not only by their protective functions against vermin and illnesses but also by the possible impact on the quality of their products.
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