Developing tendencies of selection work in sheep breeding

  • V. Topiha
  • G. Kalinichenko
  • O. Petrova
  • V. Kirichenko
Keywords: sheep, breeding characteristics, integrated assessment, antigen, immunogenetics, marker

Abstract

The article presents tendencies in the development of selection and breeding work in the sector of the national sheep breeding. During many years scientists of livestock production institute in steppe areas of “Askania Nova” carry out the selection and breeding work for the improvement and creation new breeds and intra-breed types of sheep in different directions of productivity: fine-wool, semi-fine-wool, rough wool, striped-dairy sheep and others.For many years in the selection system and breeding work with species, evaluation and selection of animals for numerous indicators of productivity was mainly carried out by phenotypic signs using population genetics and only in the last decade it started to be supplemented with achievements of biological sciences which are connected with immunogenetics researches.The work reveals main evaluation stages of productivity of fine-wool sheep and striped-dairy sheep. The assessment of selection characteristics of national sheep breed is given, namely: Taurian type of ascanian fine-wool breed and ascanian Karakul breed on the basis of traditional selection and with the use of immunogenetics markers. As a result of their appraisal and evaluation the following was established. There were such indicators of productivity of Taurian ewe type of ascanian fine-wool breed in a section of farms: the live weight of ewes at the age of three reaches 53,47‒57,48 kg, pure fiber is 2,84‒3,61 kg; the wool length is 9,69–11,3 cm. The average level of this indicator in ewes is 8,9‒10,73 cm, fertilization of females is 74,5‒83 %, the yield of lambs is 104,5‒124, 8 heads.The total number of Karakul sheep is about 4 thousand heads, including 114 rams with a live weight 76,5–83,5kg, ewes are 2516 heads, 52,0–54,8 kg. The main livestock is grown in the breeding factory “Marceevo” in Kherson region. In a breeding herd a part of rams is 85,7 %, ewes ‒ 69,5 %, elite and the first class is 100 which is 78 %; actual multiplicity is 151,9 which is 173,4 %. Newborn lambs have basically a medium size curl, thick, silky and shiny coat. The average output of striped type is 67,7 %. The lamb coats in Ukraine meet the requirements of the standard for pure-bred Karakul.Our research has found a corresponding relationship between lambs which are divided into classes and molecular-genetic markers. It is established that 29,43 % of elite animals had phenogroup Вb (B ‒ blood group system), and among the first-class lambs the number of animals with this phenotype increased to 36,04 %, the second class ‒ up to 39,28 per cent. In its turn, pheno-variant Вbе was found in 36, 69 % of elite animals, while among lambs of the first and second classes of such animals it was 9,94 % less. The given results show the effectiveness of the use of immunogenetics markers for improving the efficiency of selection and breeding work in sheep-breeding. Therefore, the evaluation of animals should be carried out both by the phenotypic characteristics and the use of achievements in biological sciences related to immunogenetics researches.

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Published
2017-07-07
Section
Agricultural sciences (animal husbandry)