The substantiation of requirements and strategies for achieving the institutional balance of the forest socio-ecological services market
AbstractThe institutional balance of the forest socio-environmental services market should be understood as the absence of significant contradictions between informal and formal institutions. The level of accord between formal and informal institutions determines the expense scale to eliminate conceivable contradictions, that is, the potential dynamics of transaction costs, and, consequently, defines both the effectiveness of institutional provision and the efficiency of the economic system on a global basis. This requires the necessity to inquire into conditions and strategies for achieving the institutional balance of the forest social and ecological services market, as a cost-effective condition, under the certain initial status of the institutional support subsystem.The institutional unbalance in the market of forest social and ecological services occurs when the introduction of new formal institutions meets a strong opposition from the side of informal ones, due to the deep rooted informal norms of behavior concerning the forest in the society. The economic factor for evolving this situation to the substance of the institutional balance is when the economical benefits from the introduction of new formal norms exceed the institutional transactions. The strategy of achieving the institutional balance is the gradual evolutional adaptation of formal institutions to existing informal constraints. The institutional imbalance could be generated by the factor of non changing formal institutions when informal institutions are transforming. For the socio-ecological component of forest resources, this is the most typical situation nowadays. The significant deformation of society needs of ecological nature benefits of forest requires changing a great number of laws in terms of political and legal supporting the concept of sustainable environmental management. At the same time, the lack of understanding by business the prospects from the capitalization of social and environmental benefits, and, in the most cases, the fear of risks from such a new innovation breakthrough in the forestry economy, cause political lobbying the introduction of new norms in the forest economy sector at the national level. The economic condition for developing such a situation to the institutional balance status is when the cost of the risk from fines for certain informal shadow rules of exploiting the socio-ecological resources of the forest exceeds the potential benefits. The strategy of achieving the institutional balance is the introduction of effective coordinating institutes into the institutional environment.There is the institutional imbalance, when the institutional balance is achieved by the adequate development of formal and informal institutions - the situation of adequate evolution of formal and informal institutions. Economic agents are interested in informal rules, which have proven their effectiveness of regulating relations affiliated to the usage of forest resources for a long time, to become formal. The economic condition for the implementation of such a process is the accordance of the economic benefits provided by this transformation and of the expenses on providing the formal status for informal rules.In case of implementing the conceptual foundations for establishing and functioning the forest socio- ecological services market, could happen the situation between formal and informal institutions, when the certain institutional balance occurs, that is, formal and informal institutions are not changing in a while. The economic provision of such a condition is when institutional transactions require more expenses, than the benefits that economic agents can get from the institutional development. Such situations require the stabilization strategy, that is obtained by mutual compromises for solving the issues affiliated to concluding and implementing contracts.The conducted observations let us to determine the scientifically grounded economic conditions and action strategies, that lead the institutions of the forest social and ecological services market to the institutional balance situations, as an important factor for the economic system functioning efficiency.
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