Optimization of the use of microfertilizers and plant growth regulators in maize crops of the northern steppe of Ukraine

  • Yu. Tkalich
  • A. Tsyliuryk
  • V. Kozechko
Keywords: corn, microfertilizers, plant growth regulators, seed incrustation, drought resistance, heat resistance, elements of crop structure, grain yield

Abstract

Formulation of the problem. In modern conditions of managing one of the primary directions of the development of the crop sector is the use of the newest technologies for growing corn, which ensure a stable increase in the volume of grain production. But, in recent times, due to the violation of crop rotation, the development of erosion processes, excessive man-caused stress, deterioration of water, nutrient regimes and humus condition of chernozems, the growth of grain production is under constant threat, which makes it necessary to improve the elements of the technology of growing corn, including food systems plants with the use of microfertilizers, plant growth regulators that are able to regulate growth processes, contribute to the increase in the level of yields grain and its quality indicators, and are environmentally friendly for the environment and human health.Among plant growth regulators, Vympel, Vympel-K, and microfertilizers Oracle, Oracle Biozinc, Oracle multicomplex, and others that are very effective in the Steppe zone in different cultures are relevant and require further study of efficacy in order to identify the best option for their use.Purpose of work. The purpose of the research is to establish the technical effectiveness of microfertilizers Oracle, Oracle multicomplex, Oracle Biotzink and growth regulators Vympel, Vympel-K for field germination, the duration of interphase development periods and plant density, drought resistance, elements of crop structure and yield of corn grain.Results of the study. According to the results of the research, the maximal drought resistance and heat resistance of the maize plant were in the variant where the seeds were treated with Vympel – 0,5 l/t and foliar top dressing was carried out in the phase 2‒3 leaves of the Oracle – 1,0 l/ha in a tank mixture with herbicide Tаsk – 350 g/ha + surfactant Trend 90 – 300,0 ml/ha.It was established that all the studied biological preparations positively influenced the formation of the elements of the corn crop structure, in particular, with an increase in the number of treatments with biological preparations, there was a clear tendency to increase the length of the ears by 0,6‒2,7 cm in comparison with the control. There is also a slight tendency to growth of the head diameter up to 5,4‒5,6 cm in variants with the use of a full range of biologics. The maximum weight indicators of 1000 grains were also characteristic for plots with the use of a full range of biopreparations where the weight gain of 1000 grains exceeded the control by 3,7‒10,6 %.Conclusions. It is proved that under the conditions of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine, the use of a full range of plant growth regulators and microfertilizers, namely the inlay of Vympel-K seeds, is 500 g/t, maize plants are in phase 3‒5 leaves (Vympel – 500 g/ha + Oracle multicomplex – 1,0 l/ha, Oracle Biozinc – 1,0 l/ha) and 7‒8 leaves (Vympel – 500 g/ha + Oracle multicomplex – 1,0 l/ha) provides a steady tendency to increase the field germination of seeds by 3,4‒5,0 %, increase of drought resistance and heat resistance of maize plants by 1,5 times and the maximum grain yield of 6,74‒6,88 t/ha, which is 0,73‒0,87 t/ha (12,1‒14,5 %) compared with the control.

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Published
2018-02-19
Section
Agricultural sciences (agronomics, agricultural ecology, land reclamation, ecology, crops husbandry, farming)