Agroeconomic Assessment of Utilization Biologics in the Cultivation of Spring Barley in the Conditions of the Southern Steppe of Ukraine
AbstractThe results of research conducted in 2016‒2018 on the southern chernozem andthe effect of two varieties of spring barley extra-root feed on the formation of grain productivityare given. Based on the results obtained, indicators of agroeconomic efficiency and their changewere determined under the influence of this event (as one of the most important elements of technology)in growing the crop, including in terms of varieties. Despite the increase in productioncosts, the treatment of plant seeding with biologics contributed to a certain increase in notional netprofit, which increased with the number of feeds, reaching the highest values if used to optimizethe nutrition of Fresh florid (300 g/ha). One feeding of Stalker variety is determined at the levelof 5927, two feeding ‒ 6890, three ‒ 7320 UAH, and 3857 UAH/ha ‒ in control. The mentionedindicators were 5968, 6808, 7771 and 3980 UAH/ha, respectively, when the spring barley varietyVakula was grown. One of the most important indicators of economic efficiency decreased‒ the cost of growing a unit of production with an increase in the number of extracurricular feeding.The lowest indicator was the cost price of production of top – dressing with Fresh florid(300 g/ha ‒ according to the Stalker variety): with one extracorporeal sowing ‒ 2269.4; two treatments‒ 2173.5, and three ‒ 2166.7 UAH/t; in control, this indicator was 2638.5 UAH/t. Thesevalues were, respectively, 2262.3; 2185,8; 2105.4 and 2608.0 UAH/t when the barley spring varietyVakula was growing. The use of other biological preparations led to a certain increase in thecost of growing spring barley. The highest values were recorded when using Organic D-2 M withonly one feeding in the plant phase. In this version of the experiment the cost of growing a unitof production even slightly exceeded control, when Vakula variety was grown. The cultivation ofspring barley on the basis of resource saving using modern re-regulating substances and biologicalpreparations is advisable, because it increases not only the level of grain yield, but also themain indicators of agro-economic efficiency - net profit and profitability, and unit cost, on thecontrary, decreases. It was established that by optimizing the nutrition of spring barley on thebasis of resource saving by treating crops in the main growing seasons with biological products,along with increasing grain yield and changes in its quality, other indicators of agro-economicefficiency of crop production increase. The level of profitability in control (treatment of plantswith water) for the cultivation of barley of the spring variety Stalker was 59.2%, then in themost optimal food options it reached 93.8%, and for the Vakula variety they were determined61.0 and 99.5% respectively. The obtained agroeconomic indicators in the cultivation of springbarley made it possible to substantiate the following claims: the use of biologics to treat thesowing of spring barley plants during the main periods of vegetation increases the yield and costof grown grain. It was determined that the level of profitability of growing spring barley witha large number of feeds grew. The indicator reached its maximum value with three times theplanting of barley plants of the spring variety Vakula with Fresh florid, that is, 300 g/ha (99.5%).Two plant crops with this drug provided profitability at the level of 99.1%, and one ‒ 85.6, (incontrol ‒ 61.0%). The highest profitability of cultivation was ensured by the use of Fresh florid(300 g/ha) for optimizing nutrition three times for vegetation ‒in the phases of tillering, shootingand heading. The lowest level of profitability was ensured by the use of the preparation OrganicD-2 M for feeding barley of the spring variety Vakula: one treatment of plants ‒ at the level of60.6%, two ‒ 72.5, three treatments ‒ 78.2%. According to the results of research conductedwith two varieties of spring barley, the best biological product and terms of fertilization weredetermined in order to increase grain yield and improve its quality and agro-economic efficiencybased on the calculation of cost economic indicators. The expediency of nutrition optimizationby using modern biological products for spring barley cultivation has been confirmed.
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