The Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through the Implementation of Low-carbon Technologies for the Use of Lands disturbed by Mining Operations
AbstractThe climate change is a global environmental problem. Its solution requires thereduction of greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2, as soon as possible. The developmentand implementation of low-carbon technologies can help in achievement this goal. Disturbedlands, which are a source of environmental pollution, can be used to reduce CO2 emissions. Wepropose to introduce technologies for locating solar and wind power plants on disturbed lands,primarily on mining dumps of overburden. The capacity of such solar and wind power plants canreplace thermal power plants, which generate the main volumes of CO2 emissions. Placing onthe mining dumps of overburden of solar power plants has advantages due to the use of southernexposures of the slopes. The wind power plants on the top of mining dumps of overburden takemore opportunities to use of wind speed by attracting additional height. Mining dumps haveemitted carbon dioxide due to the decomposition of limestone and the spontaneous combustion ofcarbon-containing rocks. Counteraction of CO2 emissions by coating the surface with inert materialsthat block the access of moisture and acid solutions to hazardous rocks is proposed. The useof new technologies for the rehabilitation of disturbed lands through the formation of secondaryecosystems creates opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This have avoids additionalCO2 emissions during the operation of machines and mechanisms at the mining–technicaland biological stages of reclamation. Secondary soils able to accumulate carbon in the form oforganic matter up to 11 t / ha for 30–50 years. The study of technogenic soils formation on loess-like loams in the landscape reserves “Vizyrka” (Inguletsky GOK), “Hrushivka” (MarganetskyGOK), “Vershina” (Prosyansky GOK) are have evidenced of this facts. Plant components of ecosystemshave even more opportunities. Secondary vegetation absorbs CO2 from the atmosphereduring photosynthesis, creates the coating of surface of lands disturbed by mining operations.Clover plant group show the greatest ability to accumulate carbon (up to 57 t/ha per year). Theresearch was carried out at the research area of Inguletsky GOK. Our assessment testifies that theintegrated application of the above technologies will reduce emissions in Kryvbas by 95 milliontons of CO2 per year. The work was carried out under the target program of the National Academyof Sciences of Ukraine “Scientific and technical and economic and ecological foundations oflow-carbon development of Ukraine”.
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