Identification of the genus Nicotian for the selection of the Ukrainian group of rustic tobacco
AbstractN. rustica L. as a technical product is an underestimated crop, due to the rich number of valuable compounds in interest to the pharmaceutical, hydrolysis, microbiological and pulp and paper industries. The task is, to determine the chemical composition of N. rustica L. for the introduction of the best samples in the selection process. The purpose of the study ‒ restore the collection of N. rustica L. by involving introduced varieties to the selection process. The main material for the research was, a collection of domestic local varieties ‒ representatives of different ecotypes with a large set of economically valuable traits, with high adaptability to cultivation in certain conditions of their cultivation. During 2014‒2019, the Transcarpathian State Research Station of NAAS carried out exploratory work on the restoration and creation of the collection N. rustica L. by involving introduced varieties to the selection process. To assess the varieties used methods for assessing shag for distinctiveness, homogeneity and stability. The selection of varieties of the Ukrainian group N. rustica L. and combining them into groups was based on economically valuable traits (length of the growing season, yield, type of raw materials and requirements for agronomic growing conditions) and morphological traits. Varieties such as Khmelovka, Kurchava, Vysokorosla zelena, Malopasynkova, Zhovta, Bakun are grown in the Transcarpathian State Agricultural Research Station in order to preserve valuable varieties, improve their growing conditions in the Transcarpathian region and restore valuable aromatic and medicinal culture. As a result of observations it was established, that the duration of summer ‒ autumn development of N. rustica L. in the studied varieties averaged 135 days, and depending on the variety 100‒149 days. Chemical plants research of the genus Nicotiana involves the accurate study of the composition on different types of tobacco raw materials and the development methods for objective assessment of product quality. These studies allow to determine the degree of improvement on certain technological tobacco processing means, to develop methods of changing the tobacco raw materials composition in the right direction, and makes it possible to obtain valuable substances (nicotinic acid) in the maximum amount for a particular plant. The nicotine content in the varieties of the Ukrainian group was studied and were selected the samples with the highest nicotine content and the best varietal qualities of vegetative mass productivity and vegetation duration. The nicotine content depends on many factors. Nicotine content depends on the color of the leaf blade of N. rustica L. A higher nicotine content was recorded in the leaves of intense green color compared to light-colored. The absorption spectra of distillates samples of N. rustica L. shag samples are identical to those obtained for the standard nicotine solution, except for samples of shag varieties on local shag and Bakun black. As a result, chemical analysis of shag samples and the nicotine content in the varieties of the Ukrainian group was determined and samples with the highest nicotine content and the best varietal qualities (vegetative mass productivity and vegetation duration) were identified. Almost all samples have a high nicotine content, but only two cultivars should be distinguished ‒ Koriotes dark, in which the nicotine content exceeded 2%, and Khmelivka cultivar, reacted very positively to the growing conditions, and the nicotine content in the cultivars of this cultivar (Kharkiv, Ukrainka and Voronezh) was also quite high and exceeded 1%. The result of available material processing is developed classification of varietal variety of shag, studied morphological characteristics and biological features of the Ukrainian cultivars group, established varietal characteristics of the main phenological phases of shag development, identified varieties with early growing season and early tying boxes in selections work, to accelerate the harvest and value to breeders as source forms. Nicotiana rustica cultivars belonging to the cultivars of the Ukrainian group have a fairly fast season growing and a short flowering period, which is not desirable in the growing process, but at the same time the cultivars of this group form sufficient amount of vegetative mass for industrial cultivation and have a high nicotine content.
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