French breeding wheat varieties adaptabiliy for the Ukrainian North Steppe conditions
AbstractProblems of adaptive ability of modern varietal material and limits of its realization in grain yield and quality, complex estimation of peculiarities of cultivation of genotypes of Western European ecotype and its difference from local variety types is a priority task in studying possibilities of both direct and indirect use of biodiversity of cereals for continuous development of the agricultural sector of production. The results of the study of grain productivity, yield structure and grain quality of INRA breeding varieties (Clermont-Ferrand, France) under the conditions of the North Steppe of Ukraine are presented, the possibilities of their use for the breeding process and in grain production of the region are compared. to the standard of the zone (variety Podolyanka) and local variety (variety Commercial), appropriate phenotypic observations were made. The objective of the study was to describe the phenotypic variability of winter wheat varieties in the region, to analyze the differences in growth and development, the formation of yield and grain quality. The experiments were performed in the experimental field of the Education and Research Center of the Dnipro State Agrarian University, the replication was three times, the placement scheme was randomized. Phenological observations of growth and development of winter wheat plants, differences in the onset of individual phases of development, continuous accounting of yield, assessment of the main parameters of its structure (plant height, number of grains from the main spike, weight of grain from the main spike, grain weight from the plant, weight of thousand grains). The grain quality was used to evaluate the content of protein, glutenins, and gliadins. It is established that all samples of foreign breeding belong to the late groups by maturity and short-stem form. It was found that the vast majority of them yield higher than the standard. The predominant characteristics of varieties of French breeding: short stem (60–80 cm), lower grain weight from the plant (3.2–3.9 g) and weight of a thousand grains (32–40 g) with one exception for the last two parameters. It was found that most of the samples, except for two, are inferior to domestic varieties in grain quality, the key problem was also the content of the glutenin fraction. Several varieties have been identified, the use of which for the production and improvement of varieties is expedient due to higher yields or higher grain quality of these samples.
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