Features of autumn development of winter wheat depending on the main tillage in the Luhansk region
AbstractToday, in the scientific and practical field, as well as a long time later, much attention is paid to improving the quality and quantity of yield. To obtain the desired results, we considered various systems of basic soil tillage in the growing of winter wheat, namely, determined the influence of basic soil tillage systems on the autumn development of winter wheat in the Luhansk region. The results of research of the influence of the basic soil tillage and the forecrop on the density and content of productive moisture in the soil layer of ordinary chernozems and on the autumn phases of development of winter wheat variety “Antara” are discussed. The research was performed in 2018‒2020 in the fields of the department of scientific and technical training in agronomy and farms located in the north-central moderately arid subzone of Luhansk region. Three methods of soil tillage have been studied by us: moldboard ploughing ‒ depth 22 cm; moldboard- less disking ploughing ‒ depth 10 cm; moldboard-free subsurface cultivation ‒ depth 12 cm. Forecrops: occupied fallow, sunflower, maize. The research was performed according to generally accepted methods. By means of research was established the advantage of moldboard ploughing over moldboardless ploughing. Moldboard soil ploughing contributed to the creation of lower density in the arable horizon under different forecrops, greater microbiological activity of the soil, better water supply during the autumn vegetative season. Moldboard ploughing increased access to nutrients such as potassium and nitrogen, and moldboardless ploughing accumulated available phosphorus. Improving the agrophysical properties of the soil contributed to the formation of better biometric indices in the autumn vegetative season. The height of the plants where the soil was plowed to the depth 22 cm was higher compared to the height of the plants with moldboard- less disking ploughing to the depth 10 cm. This affected the number of stems, which also increased, the number of leaves and roots increased, respectively. The depth of the tillering node increased relative to the increase in the depth of soil tillage, the weight of 100 absolutely dry plants increased, respectively, almost three to four times. Thus, the basic soil tillage improves the agrophysical properties, increases the microbiological activity of the soil and improves the biometric indices of plants.
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