Biological diversity and ecosystem services of the technosols of mining areas
AbstractThe development of the concept of disturbed lands recultivation as a set of activities for restoring of ecosystem services is an actual scientific problem. The principles of the formally assessment of ecosystem services for the harmonization and control of the behaviour of technoagroecosystems were developed within the frame of the ecosystem paradigm to achieve a significant efficiency of the re-cultivated land functioning under environmental safety conditions and to achieve the objectives of biodiversity conservation. A set of variables, describing the environmental properties of the technosols, was analyzed by the principal component analysis in order to reduce the dimension of the properties space and to determine the main directions of the corresponded variation of the ecological properties of the technosols. The results of the analysis suggested that the feature space, which consists of 30 initial indicators, can be described with the help of seven pricipal components. The extracted principal components reflected the prevailing agreed trends of varying environmental properties of technosems. The principal components were statistically correct predictors, which can be investigated to explain the properties of the soil macrofauna communities. The principal components also had an ecological content as the markers of coordinated changes of the soil properties and plant communities. The estimation of the principal component influence on the soil macrofauna allowed to determine peculiarities of the integration of soil animals into ecological processes in technosems and their role in ecosystem services. The principal components had a differential ability. Each of them indicates the peculiarities of a combination of ecosystem services, which is typical for an individual tehnosems or a particular group. The functional peculiarities of the soil invertebrate communities, responsible for the implementation of ecosystem services, were affected by the aggregate structure of technosls, as well as react to electrical conductivity of the soil, features of ecological regimes of the mineral nutrition and humidity of soils. The variation of the environmental parameters in integral form denoted by the principal component 2 was within the optimum of the pedobiont zone. This result allows us to argue, that technosols cannot be identified as a total extreme location. The formation of the optimal conditions for certain groups of macrofauna community was the result of the soil forming process that took place since the creation of technosols. The technosol types explained 5.68% of the macrofauna community grouping, which testifies to the specificity of each type of technosols as habitat for soil animals. Along with the specific peculiarities of technosols, there was a dynamic of processes, which in this way react to the groups of macrofauna in different types of technosols. The structuring effect of the technosol type on the invertebrate community was considerably inferior to the influence of variation of environmental regimes, which are common for all types of technosols. The perspectives of further researches are related to solving the issue of the mapping of ecosystem services of agricultural and technogenic transformed territories at different scale levels. Also an important scientific and practical problem is the development of procedures for monetary evaluation of the ecosystem services.
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