Biological diversity and ecosystem services of the technosols of mining areas

Keywords: macrofauna; entropy; analysis of principal component; environmental groups; technosols


The development of the concept of disturbed lands recultivation as a set of activities for restoring of ecosystem services is an actual scientific problem. The principles of the formally assessment of ecosystem services for the harmonization and control of the behaviour of technoagroecosystems were developed within the frame of the ecosystem paradigm to achieve a significant efficiency of the re-cultivated land functioning under environmental safety conditions and to achieve the objectives of biodiversity conservation. A set of variables, describing the environmental properties of the technosols, was analyzed by the principal component analysis in order to reduce the dimension of the properties space and to determine the main directions of the corresponded variation of the ecological properties of the technosols. The results of the analysis suggested that the feature space, which consists of 30 initial indicators, can be described with the help of seven pricipal components. The extracted principal components reflected the prevailing agreed trends of varying environmental properties of technosems. The principal components were statistically correct predictors, which can be investigated to explain the properties of the soil macrofauna communities. The principal components also had an ecological content as the markers of coordinated changes of the soil properties and plant communities. The estimation of the principal component influence on the soil macrofauna allowed to determine peculiarities of the integration of soil animals into ecological processes in technosems and their role in ecosystem services. The principal components had a differential ability. Each of them indicates the peculiarities of a combination of ecosystem services, which is typical for an individual tehnosems or a particular group. The functional peculiarities of the soil invertebrate communities, responsible for the implementation of ecosystem services, were affected by the aggregate structure of technosls, as well as react to electrical conductivity of the soil, features of ecological regimes of the mineral nutrition and humidity of soils. The variation of the environmental parameters in integral form denoted by the principal component 2 was within the optimum of the pedobiont zone. This result allows us to argue, that technosols cannot be identified as a total extreme location. The formation of the optimal conditions for certain groups of macrofauna community was the result of the soil forming process that took place since the creation of technosols. The technosol types explained 5.68% of the macrofauna community grouping, which testifies to the specificity of each type of technosols as habitat for soil animals. Along with the specific peculiarities of technosols, there was a dynamic of processes, which in this way react to the groups of macrofauna in different types of technosols. The structuring effect of the technosol type on the invertebrate community was considerably inferior to the influence of variation of environmental regimes, which are common for all types of technosols. The perspectives of further researches are related to solving the issue of the mapping of ecosystem services of agricultural and technogenic transformed territories at different scale levels. Also an important scientific and practical problem is the development of procedures for monetary evaluation of the ecosystem services.


Albrecht, M., Schmid, B., Hautier, Y., & Müller, C. B. (2012). Diverse pollinator communities enhance plant reproductive success. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 279(1748), 4845–4852. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.1621

Balvanera, P., Pfisterer, A. B., Buchmann, N., He, J. S., Nakashizuka, T., Raffaeliand, D., & Schmid, B. (2006). Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services. Ecology Letters, 9(10), 1146–1156. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00963.x

Brooks, D. R., Bater, J. E., Clark, S. J., Monteith, D. T., Andrews, C., Corbett, S. J., Beaumont, D. A., & Chapman, J. W. (2012). Large carabid beetle declines in a United Kingdom monitoring network increases evidence for a widespread loss in insect biodiversity. Journal of Applied Ecology, 49(5), 1009–1019. doi: 10.2307/23353466

Brouwer, R., Brander, L., Kuik, O., Papyrakis, E., & Bateman, I. (2013). A synthesis of approaches to assess and value ecosystem services in the EU in the context of TEEB (Final Report). University Amsterdam Institute for Environmental Studies.

Cardinale, B. J., Duffy, J. E., Gonzalez, A., Hooper, D. U., Perrings, C., Venail, P., …, & Naeem, S. (2012). Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature, 486(7401), 59–67. doi: 10.1038/nature11148

Cardinale, B. J., Srivastava, D. S., Duffy, J. E., Wright, J. P., Downing, A. L., Sankaran, M. & Jouseau, C. (2006). Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystems. Nature, 443, 989–992. doi: 10.1038/nature05202

Cardinale, B. J., Wright, J. P., Cadotte, M. W., Carroll, I. T., Hector, A., Srivastava, D. S., Loreau, M., & Weis, J. J. (2007). Impacts of plant diversity on biomass production increase through time because of species complementarity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 104(46), 18123–18128. 10.1073/pnas.0709069104

Cottingham, K. L., Brown, B. L. & Lennon, J. T. (2001). Biodiversity may regulate the temporal variability of ecological systems. Ecology Letters, 4(1), 72–85. 10.1046/j.1461-0248.2001.00189.x

Daily, G. C. (1997). Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington.

de Vries, F. T., Thébault, E., Liiri, M., Birkhofer, K., Tsiafouli, M. A., Bjørnlund, L., …, & Bardgett, R. D. (2013). Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 110(35), 14296–14301. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1305198110

Doak, D. F., Bigger, D., Harding, E. K., Marvier, M. A., O'Malley, R. E., & Thomson, D. (1998). The statistical inevitability of stability diversity relationships in community ecology. The American Naturalist, 151(3), 264–276. doi: 10.1086/286117

EASAC (2015). Ecosystem services, agriculture and neonicotinoids (EASAC policy report No. 26, 1‒62). Retrieved from

EEA (2010). The European environment – state and outlook 2010: synthesis. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen. doi: 10.2800/45773

EU Commission (2011). The EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. doi: 10.2779/39229

Foley, J. A., DeFries, R., Asner, G. P., Barford, C., Bonan, G., Carpenter, S. R., …, & Snyder, P.K. (2005). Global consequences of land use. Science, 309(5734), 570‒574. doi: 10.1126/science.1111772

Gallai, N., Salles, J.-M., Setteled, J., & Vaissièrea, B. E. (2009). Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecological Economics, 68(3), 810–821. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.06.014

Gonzalez, A., & Loreau, M. (2009). The causes and consequences of compensatory dynamics in ecological communities. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 40(1), 393–414. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.39.110707.173349

Greenleaf, S., Williams, N. M., & Winfree, R. (2007). Bee foraging ranges and their relationship to body size. Oecologia, 153, 589–596. doi: 10.1007/s00442-007-0752-9

Klein, A., Steffan-Dewenter, I., & Tscharntke, T. (2003). Fruit set of highland coffee increases with the diversity of pollinating bees. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 270(1518), 955–961. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2002.2306

Klein, A. M., Vaissière, B. E., Cane, J. H., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Cunningham, S. A., Kremen, C. & Tscharntke, T. (2007). Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 274(1608), 303–313. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2006.3721

Lawesson, J. E., & Oksanen, J. (2002). Niche characteristics of Danish woody species as derived from coenoclines. Journal of Vegetation Science, 13(2), 279–290. doi: 10.1658/1100-9233(2002);2

Leonhardt, S. D., Gallai, N., Garibaldi, L. A., Kuhlmann, M., & Klein, A. M. (2013). Economic gain, stability of pollination and bee diversity decrease from southern to northern Europe. Basic and Applied Ecology, 14(6), 461–471. doi: 10.1016/j.baae.2013.06.003

Losey, J., & Vaughan, M. (2006). The economic value of ecological services provided by insects. Bioscience, 56(4), 311–323. doi: 10.1641/0006-3568(2006);2

Maslikova, E. P. (2018a). Phytoindication spatio-temporal structures tehnozemov and endogenous mechanisms of sustainable functioning of anthropogenic soil-like bodies. Agrology, 1(3), 273‒280 (in Russian). doi: 10.32819/2617-6106.2018.13006

Maslikova, K. P. (2017). The ecological structure of technosol vegetation of the Nikopol manganese ore basin. News of Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian and Economic University, 4 (46), 77‒88 (in Ukrainian).

Maslikova, K. P. (2018b). Spatio-temporal dynamics of the phytoindication estimates of acidity and salt regime of Nikopol manganese ore basin tehnosols. Agrobiology, 1, 115–128.

Maslikova, K. P. (2018c). Phytoindication spatio-temporal structures tehnozemov and endogenous mechanisms of sustainable functioning of anthropogenic soil-like bodies. Agrology, 21(3), 273‒280.

Maslikova, K. P. (2018d). Management of functional properties of recultozem models with placement primary stratigraphy. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(1), 619–627 (in Ukrainian). doi: 10.15421/2018_257

Maslikova, K. P. (2018e). Ecomorphic community structure of the herpetobiont invertebrates of Nikopol manganese ore basin tehnosols. Scientific reports of National university of life and environment of Ukraine, 2(72) (in Ukrainian).

Maslikova, K. P. (2018f). Eсomorphic structure of the soil macrofauna communities of technosols of the Nikopol Manganese Ore Basin. Biosystems Diversity, 26(2), 85–91 (in Ukrainian). doi: 10.15421/011813

Maslikova, K. P. (2018g). Principal component analysis of technosols ecological properties. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(2), 105–112 (in Ukrainian). doi: 10.15421/2018_316

Maslikova, K. P., Ladska, I. V., & Zhukov, O. V. (2016). Permeability of soils in artificially created models with different stratigraphy. Biological Bulletin of Bogdan Chmelnitskiy Melitopol State Pedagogical University, 6(3), 234–247 (in Ukrainian). doi: 10.15421/201693

Maslikova, K. P., Zhukov, A. V., & Kovalenko, D. V. (2018). The phytoindication evaluation of the light regime as a marker of regulatory ecosystem services in the Nikopol manganese ore basin technosols. Journal of Poltava State Agrarian Academy, 4, 116–122 (in Ukrainian).

Maslikova, K. P., Zhukov, A. V., & Kovalenko, D. V. (2019). Dynamics of the carbonate and nitrogen content during the soil forming process of the Nikopol manganese ore basin techonosols. Scientific reports of National university of life and environment of Ukraine, 1 (77) (in Ukrainian).

MEA (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Meiss, H., Lagadec, L., Munier-Jolain, N., Waldhardt, R., & Petita, S. (2010). Weed seed predation increases with vegetation cover in perennial forage crops. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 138, 10–16. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2010.03.009

Pimentel, D., Wilson, C., McCullum, C., Huang, R., Dwen, P., Flack, J., …, & Cliff, B. (1997). Economic and environmental benefits of biodiversity. Bioscience 47(11), 747–757. doi: 10.2307/1313097

Shemavnev, V. I., Gordienko, N. A., Dyʼrda, V. I., & Zabaluyev, V. O. (2005). The stable development of the complicated ecotechnosystems. Moscow‒Dnepropetrovsk (in Russian).

Sumarokov, A. M., & Zhukov, A. V. (2006). Ground of renewal of ecological potential of agrobiogeocenose s at diminishing of pesticidal loadings in Ukraine. The Kharkov Entomological Society Gazette, XIV, 1–2, 145–154.

TEEB (2010). Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature: A synthesis of the approach, conclusions and recommendations of TEEB. Progress Press, Malta.

Trichard, A., Alignier, A., Biju-Duval, L., & Petit, S. (2013). The relative effects of local management and landscape context on weed seed predation and carabid functional groups. Basic and Applied Ecology, 14, 235–245. doi: 10.1016/j.baae.2013.02.002

Tsiafouli, M. A., Thébault, E., Sgardelis, S. P., de Ruiter, P. C., van der Putten, W. H., Birkhofer, K., …, & Hedlund, K. (2015). Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe. Global Change Biology, 21, 973–985. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12752

Wilyams, V. R. (1939). Soil science. Moscow (in Russian).

Zhukov, O. V. (2009). The ecomorphic analysis of the soil animals consortia. A. L. Svidler, Dnipropetrovsk (in Ukrainian).

Zhukov, O. V., & Maslikova, K. P. (2018). The dependence of the technosols models functional properties from the primary stratigraphy designs. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 27(2), 399–407. doi: 10.15421/111864

Zhukov, O. V., Maslykova, K. P., & Kovalenko, D. (2018). Dynamics of the regulatory ecosystem services during the soil forming process of the Nikopol manganese ore basin techonosols. Scientific reports of National university of life and environment of Ukraine, 6(76) (in Ukrainian). 10.31548/dopovidi2018.06.005

Zhukov, O. V., Zadorozhna, G. O., Maslikova, K. P., Andrusevych, K. V., & Lyadskaya, I. V. (2017). Tehnosols Ecology: monograph. Zhurfond, Dnipro (in Ukrainian).

Zhukov, O., Kunah, O., Dubinina, Y., & Novikova, V. (2018). The role of edaphic and vegetation factors in structuring beta diversity of the soil macrofauna community of the Dnipro river arena terrace. Ekológia (Bratislava), 37(3), 301–327. doi: 10.2478/eko-2018-0023

How to Cite
Maslikova, K., & Zhukov, O. (2019). Biological diversity and ecosystem services of the technosols of mining areas. Agrology, 2(4), 247-257.
Оriginal researches