The influence of growth regulator and seeding rates on the formation of winter rape production in the conditions of the Western Forest-Steppe
AbstractThe influence of pre-seed treatment of seeds and one- and two-time spraying of rapeseed winter hybrid Mercedes on growth regulator “Vermiodis” on its productivity in the conditions of the Forest Steppe of the West is covered. The studies were conducted during 2018‒2019 at the Carpathian Agricultural Research Station of the Carpathian region of the NAAS of Ukraine in accordance with existing conventional methods using field, laboratory, statistical, and dispersion methods. Placement of sites is systematic in four repetitions. It has been shown that with Vermyodis a certain amount of nutrients ‒ nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, boron and other trace elements, as well as amino acids, vitamins and growth substances ‒ enter the plant. These substances activate the enzymatic activity of all plant cells and the formation of stimulating compounds by the plant itself. As a result ‒ the growth of cell energy, changes in the physicochemical properties of protoplasm, intensification of metabolism. The permeability of the root cell membrane increases, the penetration of the mineral nutrient elements of the soil solution to the plants improves, which promotes enhanced nutrient uptake by the plant. In addition, the flow of sugars, amino acids, vitamins and hormones into the plant improves. The flow of water and the absorption of oxygen by plants are accelerated, which in turn intensifies the respiration of plants cell division, photosynthesis, protein synthesis, increases the growth of the root system, above ground mass, increases the yield of dry matter, and therefore the plant’s vital activity is improving. It was found that the growth regulator “Vermyodis” significantly affects the field germination, leaf size and photosynthetic activity of rapeseed agrocenoses of the winter hybrid, which, as a result, leads to an increase in crop productivity. By seed treatment of the seed with a growth regulator at a dose of 5 l/t and spraying of plants during the growing season with the same preparation twice at 4 l/ha at the rate of sowing of 0.6 million/ha of similar seeds, the highest field germination (88.7%) was achieved, survival plants (97.7%). In the same variant, in the flowering phase, the area of the leaf area was 44.7 thousand m2/ha, which is 8.1 thousand m2/ha more than in the control. In the waxy maturity phase, the highest solids accumulation was observed, and the photosynthetic potential of crops at 0.375 million m2/d/ha, the net photosynthesis productivity of 1.27 g/m2 per day were greater relative to control. Yields reached 4.09 t/ha, or 0.6 t/ha more than in the control, the lowest cost is 3764.7 UAH/t, the highest net income is 21386 UAH/ha, with a profitability of 139.1%. In the next phase of the study will be explored the issue of reducing the recommended maximum standards of manufacturers of antifungal agents, fungicides, insecticides and herbicides when shared with growth regulators.
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