Agrobiological and technological methods of increase of erosion-preventive potential of soils in crop rotation

  • M. S. Shevchenko Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agricultural Sciences of Ukraine, Dnipro, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6779-0292
  • S. M. Shevchenko Dnipro State Agrarian and Economic University, Dnipro, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1666-3672
  • O. M. Shevchenko Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agricultural Sciences of Ukraine, Dnipro, Ukraine
  • K. A. Derevenets-Shevchenko Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agricultural Sciences of Ukraine, Dnipro, Ukraine
  • N. V. Shvets Institute of Grain Crops of National Academy of Agricultural Sciences of Ukraine, Dnipro, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3113-7689
Keywords: erosion; crop rotation; cultivation of soil; mulch; soil washoff; moisture

Abstract

The analysis of the experimental data obtained in stationary field experiments in the conditions of northern Steppe in the estimation of erosion-preventive resistance of various biotechnological systems is given. The main factors of the erosion-preventive regulation were 5-field grain-row crop rotation, different methods of base cultivation of soil and direct sowing, as well as plant mulch as a protective screen on the field surface. In the research the new methods and characteristics of reaction of the soil on the displays of water erosion which include the methods of packet monolith, traps and water absorbtion capacity of soil are used. Such a scientific instrument has allowed to estimate objectively and promptly the level of erosive safety at all stages of organogenesis of agricultural crops and at pauses between vegetation. It has been experimentally established that the greatest threat of erosive degradation of soils in the agrotechnological aspect represent the phytocenotic density of crops, the activity of soil tillage implements, the absence of mulching screen, the tread condition of soil surface. It has been proved that the application of chisel disk cultivation of soil and No-till under spring barley and winter wheat in comparison with the most erosion-dangerous element - plowing in bare fallow reduces the displays of water erosion in 2,4‒3,3 times. On sowings of row crops with an increased level of erosion threat, soil protective methods of basic cultivation can reduce soil washoff by 1,5‒2,2 times. The mechanics of soil movement in the arable layer have been discovered, depending on the design of the tools of the soil-cultivating units. A mobile way of determining the depth of precipitation moisture infiltration by means of differentiation of the arable layer in accordance with soil hardness index is proposed. Priority of erosion-preventive agro-technological measures should be maintained despite the reduction of grain yield by 5‒11% and the need for some modernization of farm crop growing technologies

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Published
2019-05-06
How to Cite
Shevchenko, M., Shevchenko, S., Shevchenko, O., Derevenets-Shevchenko, K., & Shvets, N. (2019). Agrobiological and technological methods of increase of erosion-preventive potential of soils in crop rotation. Agrology, 2(2), 122–127. https://doi.org/10.32819/019018
Section
Оriginal researches