Agrobiological and technological methods of increase of erosion-preventive potential of soils in crop rotation
AbstractThe analysis of the experimental data obtained in stationary field experiments in the conditions of northern Steppe in the estimation of erosion-preventive resistance of various biotechnological systems is given. The main factors of the erosion-preventive regulation were 5-field grain-row crop rotation, different methods of base cultivation of soil and direct sowing, as well as plant mulch as a protective screen on the field surface. In the research the new methods and characteristics of reaction of the soil on the displays of water erosion which include the methods of packet monolith, traps and water absorbtion capacity of soil are used. Such a scientific instrument has allowed to estimate objectively and promptly the level of erosive safety at all stages of organogenesis of agricultural crops and at pauses between vegetation. It has been experimentally established that the greatest threat of erosive degradation of soils in the agrotechnological aspect represent the phytocenotic density of crops, the activity of soil tillage implements, the absence of mulching screen, the tread condition of soil surface. It has been proved that the application of chisel disk cultivation of soil and No-till under spring barley and winter wheat in comparison with the most erosion-dangerous element - plowing in bare fallow reduces the displays of water erosion in 2,4‒3,3 times. On sowings of row crops with an increased level of erosion threat, soil protective methods of basic cultivation can reduce soil washoff by 1,5‒2,2 times. The mechanics of soil movement in the arable layer have been discovered, depending on the design of the tools of the soil-cultivating units. A mobile way of determining the depth of precipitation moisture infiltration by means of differentiation of the arable layer in accordance with soil hardness index is proposed. Priority of erosion-preventive agro-technological measures should be maintained despite the reduction of grain yield by 5‒11% and the need for some modernization of farm crop growing technologies
Andraski, B. J., & Lowery, B. (1992). Erosion effects on soil water storage, plant water uptake and corn growth. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 56, 1911–1919. doi: 10.2136/sssaj1992.03615995005600060044x
Balyuk, S. A., & Medvedyeva, V. V. (2012) Strategiya zbalansovanogo vykorystannya, vidtvorennya i upravlinnya gruntovymy resursamy Ukrayiny [Strategy of balanced use, management of soil resources of Ukraine]. Agrarian science, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Balyuk, S. A., Medvedyev, V. V., Tarariko. O. G., Grekov, V. O., & Balajev, A. D. (2010). Nacionalna dopovid pro stan rodyuchosti gruntiv Ukrayiny [National report on soil fertility status in Ukraine]. Ministry of Agrarian Policy, State Technological Center for Soil Fertility Protection, National Academy of
Sciences of Ukraine, National Scientific Center “O. N. Sokolovsky Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry”, National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Faucon, М., Houben, D., & Lambers, H. (2016). Plant Functional Traits: Soil and Ecosystem Services. Trends in plant science, 5, 385–394. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2017.01.005.
Medvedyev, V. V., & Lisovuy, M. V. (2001) Stan rodyuchosti gruntiv Ukrayiny ta prognoz jogo zmin za umov suchasnogo zemlerobstva [The state of soil fertility in Ukraine and the forecast of its changes in the conditions of modern agriculture]. Shtrix, Harkiv (in Ukrainian).
Montgomery, D. R. (2007). Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. National Academy of Sciences, 104(33), 13268–13272. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0611508104
Ochoa, P. A., Fries, A., Mejía, D., Burneoa, J. I., & Ruíz-Sinogae, J. D. (2016). Effects of climate, land cover and topography on soil erosion risk in a semiarid basin of the Andes. Geomorphology, 140, 31–42. doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2016.01.011
Olson, K. R., Al-Kaisi, M. A., Lal, R., & Cihacek, L. (2016). Impact of soil erosion on soil organic carbon stocks. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 71(3), 61A-67A.
Pabat, I. A. (1992) Gruntozahysna systema zemlerobstva [Soil conservation system]. Harvest, Kyiv (in Ukrainian).
Pimentel, D., Harvey, C., Resosudarmo, P., Sinclair, K., Kurz, D., McNair, M., Crist, S., Shpritz, L., Fitton, L., Saffouri, R., & Blair, R. (1995). Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science, 267, 1117–1123. doi: 10.1126/science.267.5201.1117
Prohorenko, O. T., & Adamenko, T. I. (2011) Agroklimatychnyj dovidn`k po Dnipropetrovskij oblasti (1986–2005 rr.) [Agroclimatic guide to the Dnipropetrovsk region (1986–2005)]. Dnipropetrovsk (in Ukrainian).
Prosdocimi, M., Tarollia. P., & Cerdàb, A. (2016). Mul-ching practices for reducing soil water erosion: A review. Earth-Science Reviews, 161, 191–203. doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2016.08.006
Quinton, J. N., Govers, G., Oost, K. V., & Bardgett, R. D. (2010). The impact of agricultural soil erosion on biogeochemical cycling. Nature Geoscience, 3, 311–314. doi: 10.1038/ngeo838
Shevchenko, M. S., Desyatnyk, L. M., Shvets, N. V., & Shevchenko, S. M., (2018) Metodyka vyznachennya vologosti gruntu: klasychni pomylky i obyektyvni fizychni parametry [Methodology for determination of soil moisture: classical errors and objective physical parameters]. Grain Crops, 2(2), 309–313. doi: 10.31867/2523-4544/0041
Zhang, X. C., & Wang, Z. L. (2017). Interrill soil erosion processes on steep slopes. Journal of Hydrology, 548, 652–664. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.03.046
Zhao, G., Mu, X., Wen, Z., Wang, F., & Gao, P. (2013). Soil erosion, conservation, and eco-environment changes in the Loess Plateau of China. Land Degradation & Development, 24, 499–510. doi: 10.1002/ldr.2246
Zolina, O. (2012). Change in intense precipitation in Europe. In: Z. W. Kundzewicz (Ed.), Changes in Flood Risk in Europe (pp. 97–120). IAHS Press, Wallingford, Oxfordshire. doi: 10.1201/b12348-8
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.